Metal-rich nodules collected from seabed during important technology trial

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It’s one small rock for humankind. In a landmark feat of modern engineering, rock-like nodules - rich in nickel, cobalt, manganese and copper - have been successfully collected by an underwater robot during a scientific and environmental trial in the deep Pacific Ocean.

First discovered almost 150 years ago during HMS Challenger’s epic voyage to chart the ocean, these polymetallic nodules could become critical to meeting climate change goals and supporting sustainable development.

由29所欧洲机构观察到被全球海洋矿产资源(GSR)开发的预先原型结节收集器的科学家们在海面下部署了4.5公里,其中遍历海床收集结节。

这次海上审判是世界第一。名为PATANIA II的结节收集器,配备了环境传感器和相机。在审判期间收集的数据和样品将扩大对收集结节的现实环境影响的理解。迄今为止,科学家必须仅仅依赖假设,更少的现实领域和实验室模拟和计算机模型。

深海海底矿产业仍在勘探,研发阶段。在未来几年,GSR将确保在任何商业活动发生之前进行必要的详细科学工作。

GSR是一个旅程,了解多金属结节是否可以成为最环保和社会负责的行星需求所需的途径之一。今天宣布的科学试验是该探索的核心,并有助于确保决定是最佳的科学证据。

气候和生物多样性危机在全球人口巨大增加,“GSR董事总经理Kris Van Nijen说。“脱碳迅速城市化的星球将需要大量的主要金属。这反过来将增加碳预算和影响生物多样性。不同的解决方案具有不同的影响。社会需要面对这一现实,以便这些金属可以以最负责任的方式来源,因为我们所有人的利益。”

"这次成功试验表明,可以从海底收集多金属结节。现在我们等待独立分析的结果,因此我们可以改进我们的技术和环境计划。亚博pt下载所有迹象表明迄今为止有可能成为最负担有助于满足世界螺旋金属需求的最负担最负责任的结节。“

多金属结节
4.5 kilometres beneath the surface, billions of potato-sized polymetallic nodules lie on the ocean floor. Prized for their high-grade metals, it is believed they contain more nickel, cobalt and manganese than in all land-based reserves combined[1]

These metals are vital for the infrastructure required to accommodate an urban population forecast to grow by 2.3 billion by the 2060s[2]。According to some estimates[3], the world’s building stock will double by 2060, which equals building a city the size of New York City every month for 40 years. Furthermore, the deployment of clean energy technologies such as electric vehicle batteries and wind turbines will only widen the supply gap[4]

环境监测
环境监测is a key component of GSR’s development program, ensuring the effects of its activities are understood, can be accurately predicted and improved upon, and can lead to the development and implementation of responsible environmental management strategies.

GSR承认之前深seabed mining occurs at a commercial scale, it needs to be clearly demonstrated that such activities can be managed in a way that ensures the effective protection of the marine environment.

"Recent reports have suggested that some automotive brands have ruled out the use of seabed minerals in their supply chains,“Kris Van Nijen说。“They haven’t. They have simply said that the risks of deep sea mining need to be comprehensively understood first. We agree and that is exactly what trials like the current one will help to achieve.

GSR is collaborating with the European research projectminingimpact.[5]Scientists from 29 European institutes are joining efforts with the German exploration contract holder, BGR (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources), to independently monitor the trials to help understand the environmental effects of collecting mineral resources from the seafloor.

正在进行的研究miningimpact.联盟不仅可以解决收集多金属结节的直接影响,还可以解决该过程所产生的沉积羽流的直接影响。数据将提供有关潜在未来采矿的生态系统影响的信息,不能从过去进行的小规模实验中汲取。

By employing state-of-the-art scientific equipment researchers are able to determine the spread of the sediment plume and how it resettles. They are also able to survey the loss of biodiversity across different faunal classes. GSR is also conducting environmental monitoring from its vessel.

Among the specialized instruments that were deployed during the expedition are two remotely-operated vehicles (ROV), two autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV), in situ oxygen profilers and experiment chambers, in situ pumps, as well as 50 inter-calibrated hydro-acoustic and optical sensors for measuring the suspended sediment concentrations and particle sizes.

Nodule collecting robot
Patania II, named after the world’s fastest caterpillar, is a 25-ton ultra-deepwater robot on tracks. It was successfully deployed for the first time at 13:30 Pacific time on 18 April 2021. The robot was lowered from a surface vessel via a 5km-long power and two-way communications cable in an operation that took 4 hours. On 20 April 2021, after approximately 50 hrs on the seabed, Patania II was successfully returned to the vessel.

在海底上,PATANIA II展示了它遍历海底的能力,在移动时收集结节。结节收集系统由收集器头,喷射水泵和收集鼓组成,而传感器监控整个过程。在这项任务上,PATANIA II没有连接到立管,将结节带到表面上,只有海底结节收集器正在在此阶段进行试验和监测。计划在2024年的下一个任务 - 将看到一个由全面原型海底结节收集器组成的系统集成试验,以及提升板将结节带到表面。来自PATANIA II审判的学习将纳入下一阶段。

PATANIA II的第一个部署和功能检查将在比利时和CLION CLICPERTON区(CCZ)的比利时和德国合同领域的接下来的几周内接下来的几个“潜水”。CCZ是墨西哥和夏威夷之间的太平洋六百万平方公里地区。

规定
在1994年成立的国际海床管理局(ISA)是通过联合国海洋法(UNCLOS)公约(UNCLOS)组织,调节和控制国际海底地区的所有矿物相关活动以及人类的利益yabopc国际整个。

除了与国际海床管理局(ISA)合同后,没有州或实体可以探索海底或收集结节。迄今为止,ISA已在CCZ授予18项勘探合yabovip同。持有这15年许可证的承包商代表中国,日本,俄罗斯,法国,英国,韩国,德国,波兰,牙买加,库克群岛,瑙鲁,汤加和比利时。所有勘探合同持有人都是作为合同义务的一部分进行地质和环境研究。

ISA正在制定商业活动规定,任何希望在国际深海地区进行采矿业务的承包商需要遵守这些严格的法规。

“条例”纳入了具体规定,以确保有效保护海洋环境和保护海洋生物多样性,人类健康和安全的保护,以及旨在确保公平分担来自海底矿产的财政和其他经济效益的公平分担。法规必须由ISA理事会同意和通过,并由ISA大会批准,由167名成员国和欧盟组成。

从来没有如此过多的想法在甚至存在之前进行了调节行业。

Circular economy
在长期来看,金属循环经济是最终目标,但所有可靠的研究表明首先需要巨额数量的主要资源[6]。基于陆地储备将无法满足需求,而回收率只会为其他因素中的需求和长期使用寿命的显着增加而产生适度的贡献。

与替代方案相比,该替代方案是依赖于当前和新的陆地矿山,深海可能会提出更负责任的脱碳和可持续经济发展的金属需求。海底矿物质可以使金属供应量多元化,并提供一种可选择每千克金属生产的碳足迹的选项,并且不涉及砍伐森林,人民,童工和废物山脉。

[1]深海多金属结节作为关键材料的资源,海因等人,2020

[2]Fertility, mortality, migration, and population scenarios for 195 countries and territories from 2017 to 2100: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study, Stein et al, 2020

[3]How to avoid a climate disaster, The solutions we have and the breakthroughs we need, Bill Gates, 2021

[4]气候行动的矿物质:清洁能源过渡的矿物强度,亨德,2020

[5]29 institutions from nine European countries, plus the International Seabed Authority, are partners in MiningImpact. Twenty three scientists from eight of these institutions are on board the vessel monitoring the Patania II trial

[6]Institute for Sustainable Futures – Responsible Minerals Sourcing for Renewable Energy, 2019; Minerals for Climate Action: The Mineral Intensity of the Clean Energy Transition, World Bank, 2020; Analysis of Potential for Critical Metal Resource Constraints in the International Energy Agency’s Long-Term Low-Carbon Energy Scenarios. Watari et al.,2018

For more information, please visitwww.亚博vipdeme-gsr.com.